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Canada took its trade dispute with the United States over US duties on softwood lumber to the World Trade Organization on Tuesday.
Vowing to ‘forcefully defend’ its lumber industry, Ottawa said it has formally requested WTO consultations on the duties, which it said were ‘unfair, unwarranted and deeply troubling.’
Canadian softwood lumber has been a source of conflict in US-Canadian trade for more than three decades.
In this latest round, the US Commerce Department imposed duties from the start of November ranging from 3.34 percent to 18.19 percent on the price of Canadian lumber products, after concluding that the northern neighbor had unfairly subsidized and dumped product on the US market.
In 2016, the United States imported US$5.7 billion worth of softwood lumber from Canada, up from US$4.5 billion in 2015.
Ottawa has already requested arbitration under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to try to settle the row. 
It won four previous lumber cases using NAFTA’s dispute resolution system, since 1982. But the fate of NAFTA renegotiations currently underway is unclear.
US President Donald Trump wants to eliminate NAFTA’s arbitration process, but Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s government has flatly rejected the proposal.