US stocks have closed higher in a choppy session as hopes for a COVID-19 vaccine lifted economically sensitive sectors such as energy and industrials but a pullback in mega cap shares curbed gains on the S&P 500 and Nasdaq.

Cyclicals led gains on Monday, with energy ahead by more than six per cent while industrials and financials each rose more than one per cent, as data showed monthly business activity expanded at the fastest rate in more than five years.

Energy shares got a boost from another gain in oil prices, which have risen on anticipation a vaccine will help demand recover.

Declines in technology and tech-related heavyweight names such as Apple Inc and Netflix Inc muted gains as investors rotated out of stocks seen as safe bets following a coronavirus-led crash earlier this year.

Major averages received a late boost after the Wall Street Journal reported US President-elect Joe Biden plans to nominate former Federal Reserve chair Janet Yellen to be the next treasury secretary.

“A known commodity in an uncertain situation is a potential boon for the market,” said Jake Dollarhide, chief executive officer of Longbow Asset Management in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

“The Treasury is probably more important than congress in getting the next stimulus package through. This removes a huge roadblock.”

Unofficially, the Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 291.48 points, or 1 per cent, to 29,554.96, the S&P 500 gained 15.67 points, or 0.44 per cent, to 3,573.21 and the Nasdaq Composite added 12.95 points, or 0.11 per cent, to 11,867.92.

Evidence of high efficacy rates in experimental COVID-19 vaccines had lifted the S&P 500 to a record high this month and brought the blue-chip Dow close to breaching 30,000 points for the first time, breathing new life into cyclical stocks that were beaten down during the recession.

AstraZeneca Plc on Monday became the latest major drugmaker to say its vaccine could be about 90 per cent effective, while the US health regulator is likely to approve in mid-December the distribution of Pfizer Inc’s vaccine.

Volume is expected to be on the lighter side given a trading week shortened by the Thanksgiving holiday on Thursday.

Sentiment was dented by new lockdowns to contain a surge in coronavirus infections. Nevada on Sunday tightened curbs on casinos, restaurants and bars, while imposing a broader mandate for face-coverings over the next three weeks.

Hopes of more monetary stimulus were dampened after Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin last week pulled the plug on some of the Fed’s pandemic emergency lending programs.

Richmond Federal Reserve Bank President Thomas Barkin said on Monday that households could struggle during the next several months without more government aid to provide support until a vaccine becomes widely available.

Tesla Inc shares surged closer toward hitting $US500 billion in market capitalisation before its inclusion in the S&P 500 next month.